Protection Permits & Hydrogeological Studies
Environmental Technology, Inc. (EN TECH) provides a variety of consulting services to
our commercial, industrial and governmental clients relating to waste stream management,
surface and groundwater protection, and environmental permitting.
Surface and Groundwater Quality Protection
The Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972 concentrated on point source pollution of waters of the
United States. The CWA was further amended in 1977 and 1987 to address non-point
sources and broaden the permitting programs. Waters of the United States are defined
as surface waters. Groundwater is not regulated by the CWA. Groundwater is
regulated indirectly by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act. The EPA has established safe drinking water standards including
primary and secondary drinking water standards or maximum contaminant levels (MCLs).
States have primary responsibility for the protection of groundwater. The
State of Arizona established the Aquifer Water Quality Standards (AWQS), similar to the
MCLs, for a variety of contaminants and the Aquifer Protection Permit (APP) program for
facilities discharging chemicals that may affect groundwater or degrade water quality
below the AWQS, In addition, discharges that affect soil may be regulated based on
Soil Remediation Levels (SRLs) or Groundwater Protection Levels (GPLs).
EN TECH can provide our clients with site and process inspections and evaluations to
determine the need for regulatory compliance and permitting. The facility inspection
evaluates site activities and facility processes that generate waste streams that are
discharged to the environment. These waste streams may be sampled and analyzed for
chemicals of concern and evaluated for compliance with aquifer protection standards.
The compliance audit informs the client of areas where engineering modifications
and controls, storage practices, housekeeping measures and other process improvements
could avoid costly regulatory citations or remedial cleanup costs. In addition,
preservation and/or enhancement of real property and business value may be achieved.
Process and System Design Assistance
EN TECH's staff of professional engineers and environmental scientists can assist our
clients in the design, construction and system management for a variety of industrial and
commercial processes. EN TECH's evaluations can assist our clients in waste stream
management, waste reduction and regulatory compliance. In working with process
engineers, EN TECH's staff can provide reviews of systems and chemical processes to modify
waste streams to reduce or eliminate discharges of target pollutants.
Aquifer Protection Applicability and APP Permits
If process modifications or other engineering controls cannot address particular
discharges, a determination of APP applicability may be requested from the ADEQ.
This determination provides the business owner with specific information from the
regulators on the applicability or exemptions of an activity or process that may affect
groundwater quality. EN TECH satisfies the technical capability for site
investigation and closure activities pursuant to Arizona Administrative Code A.A.C.
R18-9108.B.7. This determination provides the business owner with some assurances
concerning compliance under the program or will lead to the preparation of the APP
application and permitting process or exemptions where applicable.
The APP Permit may require information on system design, waste stream analysis and
specifications, and properties of the surface and groundwater settings at the site.
The key objective of the APP permitting process is to protect groundwater supplies through
Best Available Demonstrated Control Technology (BADCT).
Best Available Demonstrated Control Technology (BADCT)
BADCT is a combination of design, construction and regulatory standards to modify
processes and waste streams to reduce pollutant discharges to the surface and groundwater.
EN TECH's team of engineers and environmental professionals can assist in the
review and design of new and existing manufacturing, industrial, commercial and mining
processes to bring these facilities into regulatory compliance.
Hydrogeological Studies and Compliance Monitoring
APP compliance may require monitoring of the affected aquifer at a specified point of
compliance (POC). This could involve the installation of monitoring wells and
periodic groundwater sampling and analysis. EN TECH can assist our clients in the
performance of these tasks and ensure the validity and acceptability of the data.
This provides our clients with the appropriate data to comply with the permit requirements
without the unnecessary administrative costs of an internal compliance program.
EN TECH's geologists and hydrogeologists are experienced in the review and
interpretation of regional and local groundwater data to develop an understanding of
groundwater quality, groundwater flow regimes, aquifer isolation and interactions and
aquifer characteristics. This information is used in conjunction with information on
the discharging facility to best accommodate discharges while maintaining groundwater
Our team of environmental professionals can provide fate and transport modeling and
feasibility testing to evaluate the impact and interaction of waste streams and waste
stream components on soil profiles and groundwater aquifers. Here the goal is to
determine and reduce the risks to human health, the environment and sensitive receptors,
such as wetlands and riparian habitats while preserving cost-effective solutions to waste
Please contact us if you need additional information on
how EN TECH might assist you in development of a sound aquifer protection program and
cost-effective waste stream management while accomplishing your environmental compliance